Authoritarian Leaders, Political & Otherwise
In our current political/cultural/domestic environments worldwide, we can better understand leaders and dominant partners through the lens of authoritarian leaders and authoritarian personality types. Most often, such leaders of groups or movements use coercive control and influence tactics for their own gains -- money and control. These leaders have observable narcissistic personality traits and anti-social traits, and through a process of disinformation and group influence, they draw others into their dysfunctional, harmful system, changing basic beliefs (or thought reform) without the majority aware of what is happening. They usually develop a hierarchy with leaders and those higher up having more control and money. Lower in the hierarchy are members who maintain the goals of the leader(s) and are kept unaware of the reality of the situation.
Many critical thinkers and scholars observe that the US is rapidly becoming more influenced by authoritarian leaders and that our democracy is in danger. Many write about the cult of personality that has infiltrated our democratic institutions.
A review of a seminal book on dictators , The Authoritarian Personality (Levinson et.al., 1951) states:
"Bringing together the findings of psychoanalysis and social science, this book grew out of an urgent commitment to study the origins of anti-Semitism in the aftermath of Hitler's Germany. First published in 1951, it was greeted as a monumental study blazing new trails in the investigation of prejudice. As offshoots of ethnocentrism, anti-semitism and fascism cast new and dark shadows on the world, the topic again demands study and social action. ' The Authoritarian Personality' remains an important document for our time." (Retrieved on Amazon, 9/28/2016).
The concept of the "authoritarian personality" was based on writings by Erich Fromm and included studies focusing on prejudice within a psychoanalytic/psychosocial framework (Freudian and Frommian).
Levinson wrote, "Since compliance depends on whether the leader is perceived as being both powerful and knowing, the ever-watchful and all-powerful leader and his invisible but observant and powerful instruments, such as secret police, can be invoked in the same way as an unobservable but omniscient God....Similarly, the pomp and ceremony surrounding such an individual make him more admirable and less like the common..., increasing both his self-confidence and the confidence of his subjects. The phenomenon is found not only with individual leaders, but with entire movements."Timothy Snyder's New York Times bestseller On Tyranny (2017, 2021) offers a guide for surviving and resisting America's turn towards authoritarianism. "The Founding Fathers tried to protect us from the threat they knew, the tyranny that overcame ancient democracy. Today, our political order faces new threats, not unlike the totalitarianism of the twentieth century. We are no wiser than the Europeans who saw democracy yield to fascism, Nazism, or communism. Our one advantage is that we might learn from their experience." -- Timothy Snyder, Professor of History and Public Affairs at Yale University. On Tyranny elaborates on 20 ways to survive and resist that include: 1)Do not obey in advance; 2)Defend institutions; 3)Beware the one-party state; 4)Remember professional ethics; 6)Be wary of paramilitaries; 7)Be kind to our language; 8) Believe in truth; 9)Investigate; 10)Make eye contact and small talk; 11)Contribute to good causes; 12) Learn from peers in other countries; 13)Listen for dangerous words; 14)Be as courageous as you can.
Alfred Adler provided another perspective, linking the 'will to power over others' as a central neurotic trait, usually emerging as aggressive over-compensation for felt and dreaded feelings of inferiority and insignificance. Adler hypothesized that the authoritarian's need to maintain control and prove superiority over others is rooted in a worldview populated by enemies and empty of equality, empathy, and mutual benefit.